Online Racism

The lab conducts pioneering interdisciplinary work on conceptualizing, operationalizing, and investigating online racism and its impact on health and mental health outcomes, as well as ways to mitigate its harmful costs. The lab also conducts how exposure to online racism affects people’s anti-racist behaviors and attitudes.

  • Short-term chronic exposure to online racism and its impact on alcohol use as a risky coping behavior
  • Hate groups, hate crimes, hate crime laws, and racism
  • Latent profiles of online racism exposure among racial/ethnic minority groups
  • White anti-racism behaviors and attitudes in response to witnessing racism online
  • Racism in gaming and mental health costs
  • Anticipatory stress and social costs of online racism
  • Online racism, ethnic-racial socialization, online support seeking, and health outcomes
  • Internet and anti-racism advocacy

*denotes student co-authors

Keum, B.T., & Li, X. (2022). Coping with online racism: Patterns of online social support seeking and anti-racism advocacy associated with online racism, and correlates of ethnic-racial socialization, perceived health, and alcohol use severity. PLoS ONE, 17(12), e0278763.

Keum, B.T., *Waters, E., *Wong, M.J., *Salim-Eissa, R. (2022). Witnessing racism against racial minority individuals online and loneliness among White emerging adults: Anti-racism advocacy as a moderator. Journal of Community Psychology, 1-19.

Keum, B.T., Li, X., & *Wong, M.J. (2022). Hate as a System: Examining hate crimes and hate groups as state level moderators on the impact of online and offline racism on mental health. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 91, 44-55.

Keum, B.T., & Cano, M.A. (2023). Online racism, depressive and anxiety symptoms, coping-related drinking motives, and alcohol use severity among Black, Latina/o/x, and Asian emerging adults. Addictive behaviors136, 107468.

Keum, B.T. (2022). Impact of online racism on suicide ideation through perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness among racial minority emerging adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,

Keum, B.T., Wang, Y.W., Abebe, I., Callaway, J., Cruz, T., & O’Connor, S. (2022). Benefits and Harms of Social Media Use: A Latent Profile Analysis of Emerging Adults. Current Psychology,

Keum, B.T., & Li, X. (2022). Online Racism, Rumination, and Vigilance: Impact on Distress, Loneliness, and Alcohol Use. The Counseling Psychologist.

Keum, B.T., & *Hearns, M. (2021). Online Gaming and Racism: Impact on Psychological Distress Across Black, Asian, and Latinx Emerging Adults. Games and Culture.

Keum, B.T., & Cano, M.A. (2021). Online Racism, Psychological Distress, and Alcohol Use among Racial Minority Women and Men: A Multi-group Mediation Analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 91(4), 524–530.

*Imperato, C., Keum, B.T., & Mancini, T. (2021). Does intercultural contact increase Anti-racist behavior on social network sites? Social Sciences, 10(6), 207.

Keum, B.T. (2021). Does Witnessing Racism Online Promote Individual and Institutional Anti-Racism Advocacy Among White Individuals? The Role of White Empathy, White Guilt, and White Fear of Other Races. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.

Keum, B.T. (2021). Development and Validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale Short Form (15 Items) and Very Brief (Six Items). Computers in Human Behaviors Reports.

Keum, B.T. & *Ahn, L.H. (2021). Impact of Online Racism on Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use: Test of Ethnic-Racial Socialization and Silence about Race as Moderators. Computers in Human Behaviors.

Cano, M. A., Schwartz, S. J., MacKinnon, D. P., Keum, B.T., Prado, G., Marsiglia, F. F., Salas-Wright, C. P., Cobb, C., Garcini, L. M., De La Rosa, M., Sánchez, M., Rahman, A., Acosta, L., Roncancio, A. M., & de Dios, M. A. (2021). Exposure to ethnic discrimination in social media and symptoms of anxiety and depression among Hispanic emerging adults: Examining the moderating role of gender. Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Keum, B.T. & Miller, M.J. (2018). Measurement Invariance of the Perceived Online Racism Scale across Age and Gender. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 12(3), 3.

Keum, B.T. & Miller, M.J. (2018). Racism on the Internet: Conceptualization and Recommendations for Research. Psychology of Violence, 8(6), 782 – 791. *Special issue: Racism, Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, Privilege, and Violence: Advancing Science to Inform Practice and Policy

Keum, B.T., & Miller, M.J. (2017). Racism in Digital Era: Development and Initial Validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(3), 310-324.

Keum, B.T. (2017). Qualitative Examination on the Influences of the Internet on Racism and its Online Manifestation. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 7(3), 13-23.

2022-25          New Investigator Award (T32KT4680)

Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP)

State of California


PI: Brian TaeHyuk Keum, Ph.D.

Project Title: Risk of tobacco product use associated with online racism among Black emerging adults

2017-19         Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Doctoral


Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada


PI: Brian TaeHyuk Keum, Ph.D.

Project Title: Racism in the Digital Era: Conceptualization and Operationalization of Online