Psychological Measures

Below are the measures developed for use in research and relevant clinical settings. Please contact me ( for permission prior to use.

The PORS (30 items, three-factor) assesses racism that people experience or perceive in the online environment. It is designed to assess the personal, vicarious, and mediated impact (e.g., information on systemic racism in society) of online racism on people in today’s digital era. It has been developed with a rigorous scale development methodology. Evidence suggests that the measure operates equivalently across gender, racial/ethnic groups, and age groups (younger and older adults).

Click to view the Perceived Online Racism Scale

Keum, B.T., & Miller, M.J. (2017). Racism in Digital Era: Development and Initial Validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(3), 310-324.

Keum, B.T. & Miller, M.J. (2018). Measurement Invariance of the Perceived Online Racism Scale across Age and Gender. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 12(3), 3.

The full 3o-item Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) has been optimized to provide options for brief versions that still maintain psychometric properties. The 15-item PORS-Short Form captures the same three domains of the PORS and the 6-item PORS-Very Brief unidimensionally represents the construct of PORS with much shorter sets of items.

Click to view the PORS Short Form

Click to view the PORS Very Brief

Keum, B.T. (2021). Development and Validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale Short Form (15 Items) and Very Brief (Six Items). Computers in Human Behaviors Reports.

The 10-items of the CORS measures racial/ethnic minority individuals’ efforts to seek out online social support and online counter spaces to cope with online racism experiences. Click here to view the measure.

Keum, B.T., & Li, X. (2022). Coping with online racism: Patterns of online social support seeking and anti-racism advocacy associated with online racism, and correlates of ethnic-racial socialization, perceived health, and alcohol use severity. PLoS ONE, 17(12), e0278763.

The GRMSAAW (22 items, four-factor) assesses gendered racial microaggressions that Asian American women experience. It is designed to assess microaggressions that Asian American women face due to the stereotypes that portray them as submissive, objects of sexual fetishization, unfit for leadership, and restricted to a universal “Asian” body image. The scale has been developed so that the items can be assessed for either/both frequency and stress appraisal of the microaggressive events.

Click to view the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Asian American Women

Keum, B.T., Brady, J., *Sharma, R., Lu, Y., Kim, Y., & Thai, C. (2018). Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Asian American Women: Development and Initial Validation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 65(5), 571-585.

Silence about race is a socialization strategy that parents use (Hughes et al., 2006), in which individuals are silenced or discouraged from race talk. The 5 items of the SRS assesses silence/dismissal around race talk that racial/ethnic minority individuals experience from their parents/guardians.

Click to view the Silence about Race Scale

Keum, B.T. & *Ahn, L.H. (2021). Impact of Online Racism on Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use: Test of Ethnic-Racial Socialization and Silence about Race as Moderators. Computers in Human Behaviors.

The 10 item, three-factor SAS measures health service-oriented graduate students’ advocacy behaviors. In addition to activism activities such as participation in marches and contacting local governments, graduate students may act as advocates for their clients and conduct research on social justice issues. The SAS items were developed based on the literature review spanning three domains: activism, professional allyship, and academic advocacy.

Click to view the Student Advocacy Scale

Keum, B.T. *Kase, *C.A., *Sharma, R., *Yee, S.E., *O’Connor, S., *Bansal, P., & *Yang, N.Y. (in press). Collective Program Social Justice Identity and Perceived Norms on Promoting Student Advocacy. The Counseling Psychologist

The ATAAQ is a measure of people’s reactions toward athlete political behavior in sport across a range of competitive levels (e.g., professional, collegiate, high school). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 19-item scale comprising five-factors: affective reactions (five items), perceived conflict with team (four items), athlete role (three items), lack of political qualifications/credibility (three items), and desired consequences or punishments (four items). Internal consistency estimates for the ATAAQ factors were 0.88 and above. We established initial evidence for convergent, criterion-related, and predictive validity, as ATAAQ scores were correlated in expected directions with scores on personal activism orientation, belief in a just world, and attitudes toward social justice.

Link to measure paper

Sappington, R.T., Keum, B.T., & Hoffman, M.A. (2018, August). “Ungrateful, Anti-American Degenerates”: Developing a Measure of Attitudes Toward Athlete Activism. Poster presented at the annual convention of APA, San Francisco, C.A.

  • The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 has been validated across gender and racial/ethnic groups among United States college students. Link to paper
  • The Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version Brief has been validated across gender and racial/ethnic groups. Link to paper
  • The Color-blind Racial Attitudes Scale has been validated for Asian Americans. Link to paper
  • The Drive for Muscularity Scale has been validated for Asian American men. Link to paper

The heterosexism erasure construct captures attitudes, which deny or minimize the systemic oppression of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) persons in the United States.

Shin, R. Q., Keum, B.T., Smith, L. C., Lu, Y., & *Yee, S (2022). The development and validation of the Heterosexism Erasure Scale. The Counseling Psychologist.